Predictability Can Be Fatal: Page 2
A few years ago, I wanted to make some code available to others via a web-server on my home DSL-connected network. The provider, however, being more security-minded than most, blocked incoming port 80 SYN packets to residential net space. No problem. I merely configured my web-server to listen on port 81, and I made sure that the URL I posted, and linked to, and emailed about, looked like: http://www.mydomain.dom:81/.
Funny, I never saw a single web attack come my way. Security through obscurity? Nope. Fewer annoyances through obscurity? Yup.
Plenty of sites are doing it. Why not you? IMAP mail on port 10143, secure shell on port 2222, etc. Of course, you don't want to make a ton of extra work for yourself administering all this non-standardization. RFCs and the IANA exist specifically to promote standards of interoperability. Flying in the face of them is going to cost you if you care to interoperate with users, and systems and processes that aren't familiar to you.
Back in the glory days of Novell IPX-based LANs, I was a big fan of keeping TCP/IP off of client systems and using IPX/IP gateways to connect to the rest of the world. There wasn't a single IP-based worm that would stand a chance of propagating inside the net. That came at a cost, of course, of efficiency and convenience.
Efficiency, convenience, interoperability... I sound like an ad-man from Redmond! Truth be told, no one ever noticed any productivity increase after migrating to an all-IP network.
Sound system and network administration often lends a measure of obscurity by modifying, updating or removing conditions expected by attackers.
Few worms are monolithic. Instead, they take advantage of the DLLs, commands, directories and other components that the author knows is going to be present on your box. Modern versions of MS Windows often don't allow you to remove ''critical system files", but you often can remove the filename extension mappings that load them.
Bingo! We've just defeated Code Red without patching.
Whenever the Morris Worm encountered a system that had its C compiler removed, it couldn't build its tools, rendering it unable to propagate. Period.
Recently, I was looking into why some User Mode Linux based honeypots weren't vulnerable to most buffer overflow (BOF) attacks. Turns out that there were extra environment variables being passed along by the kernel to the running services. This made the execution stack addresses of those services different from those expected by the attack authors.
As an experiment, I took a stock Redhat Linux 6.2 system, unpatched, and booted it with an extra unnecessary parameter. This did what I expected. It offset the stack addresses a bit, and three out of four attacks I threw at it failed. Not bad, considering I didn't have to do anything complicated.
More elaborate stack randomization techniques are used by OpenBSD, grsecurity and others, all serving to obfuscate reality.
Obfuscation techniques are only worthwhile as long as your adversary is unaware of them. Once a skilled, determined attacker gains knowledge of your ''customized'' environment, the benefit of it is mostly lost. However, by clouding the field, you are less likely to be dealing with the latest worm-du-jour, and can dedicate resources to handling more serious incidents.
Know What You've Got
Sure, there are quite a few operating systems and products that do it the right way. OpenBSD, Novell Netware, Gentoo Linux -- they all share a common thread. They don't turn all kinds of things on by default. Even Windows Server 2003 installs with several of the old standards (like IIS) turned off. Heck, some of them even come with industrial-strength firewalls. Cool!
Unfortunately, none of them are right for my mother. Even if I could convince Mom and Dad to drop a few gigabucks on a modern commercial OS, or to eat up the better part of their retirement years on a secure-out-of-the-box open source installation, they would screw it up by downloading the latest painting package, racing game, MP3 player or whatever, that renders the box wide open.
We've been demanding convenience for so long that software and OS vendors have geared up to provide it by the bucket-load. In time, home users will demand security and stability. Won't we?
It is essential to know what is on ''by default''. Part of any sound configuration management scheme is baselining and validation. And that should include sandbox scanning and monitoring.
Can you justify the expense of responding to a root compromise because you trusted the vendor's defaults? Try taking them to court to recoup your costs.
There are plenty of tools to help you baseline your systems and remove unnecessary defaults. A great starting point is the Center for Internet Security's site: http://www.cisecurity.org. There are CIS benchmark tools available for most operating systems, including Cisco IOS.
Linux, MAC OS-X and HP/UX users have Bastille hardening scripts available at: http://www.bastille-linux.org, which walks you through the process of locating and remedying many default security pitfalls. Windows shops should already be using the Baseline Security Analyzer and the MMC Security Configuration and Analysis snap-in.
And just maybe someone will develop a tool to analyze the configs of the fairer gender by the time my son hits high school. Nahhh, let him suffer like the rest of us.
George Bakos is a Senior Security Expert with the Institute for Security Technology Studies at Dartmouth College. His research includes worm detection and intrusion analysis. Bakos formerly was a security engineer for Electronic Warfare Associates.